Home » Computer, History, Parts, Operating system and Facts

Computer, History, Parts, Operating system and Facts

computer system,

Computer:

A computer is a machine or device that performs processes. calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program. It has the ability to accept data (input), process it, and then produce outputs.

Computers can also store data for later uses in appropriate storage devices, and retrieve whenever it is necessary.

Modern computers are electronic devices used for a variety of purposes ranging from browsing the web, writing documents, editing videos, creating applications, playing video games, etc.

They are designed to execute applications and provide a variety of solutions by combining integrated hardware and software components.

computing basics:

The first computers were used primarily for numerical calculations. However, as any information can be numerically encoded, people soon realized that computers are capable of general-purpose information processing Their capacity to handle large amounts of data has extended the range and accuracy of weather forecasting. Their speed has allowed them to make decisions about routing telephone connections through a network and to control mechanical systems such as automobiles, nuclear reactors, and robotic surgical tools. They are also cheap enough to be embedded  in everyday appliances and to make clothes dryers and rice cookers “smart.” Computers have allowed us to pose and answer questions that could not be pursued before.

Computers also have limitations, some of which are theoretical. For example, there are undecidable propositions whose truth cannot be determined within a given set of rules, such as the logical structure of a computer. Because no universal algorithmic method can exist to identify such propositions, a computer asked to obtain the truth of such a proposition will continue indefinitely a condition known as the halting problem Other limitations reflect current technology Human minds are skilled at recognizing spatial patterns easily distinguishing among human faces, for instance but this is a difficult task for computers, which must process information sequentially, rather than grasping details overall at a glance. Another problematic area for computers involves natural language interactions. Because so much common knowledge and contextual information is assumed in ordinary human communication, researchers have yet to solve the problem of providing relevant information to general-purpose natural language programs.

Parts of computer:

Whether it’s a gaming system or a home PC, the five main components that make up a typical, present day computer include:

  • A motherboard
  • A Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), also known as a video card
  • Random Access Memory (RAM), also known as volatile memory
  • Storage: Solid State Drive (SSD) or Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

1. Motherboard

Definition: All components of a computer communicate through a circuit board called the motherboard. 

What it does: Think of the motherboard as the glue that holds everything else together.

The motherboard’s video card and Central Processing Unit are contained in an integrated (built-in) chipset, shown in the picture below:

This is where input/output devices such as a keyboard, mouse, and speakers get plugged in.

2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Definition: The CPU is often called the “brain” of a computer, thanks to its direct plug connection to the motherboard, and communication with all of the computer’s other components.

What it does: Whenever you write a line of code (in Python, java, C++, or any other  programming language) broken down into assembly language which is a language that the processor can understand. It fetches, decodes, and executes these instructions.

And that’s where the CPU comes in—all the processes a computer handles are taken care of by the CPU.

3. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

Definition : It’s not uncommon to hear gamers obsess over the next new graphics card, as these graphic cards make it possible for computers to generate high-end visuals like those found in the many different type of video game. 

In addition to video games, though, good graphics cards also come in handy for those who rely on images in order to execute their craft, like 3D modelers using resource-intensive software.

What it does: Graphics cards often communicate directly with the display monitor, meaning a $1,000 graphics card won’t be of much use if there isn’t a high-end monitor connected to it.

4. Random Access Memory (RAM)

Definition : RAM, also known as volatile memory, stores data regarding frequently accessed programs and processes. (It’s called volatile memory because it gets erased every time the computer restarts.)

What it does: RAM helps programs and games start up and close quickly.

5. Storage

Defination: All computers need somewhere to store their data. Modern computers either use a Hard Disk Drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD).

What it does: HDDs are made of an actual disk onto which data is stored. The disk is read by a mechanical arm. (HDDs are cheaper than SSDs, but are slowly becoming more and more obsolete.)

SSDs (think SIM cards) have no moving parts and are faster than a hard drive, because no time is spent waiting for a mechanical arm to find data on a physical location on the disk.

operating system:

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

Some popular Operating Systems include Linux Operating System, Windows Operating System, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc.

Following are some of important functions of an operating System.

  • Memory Management
  • Processor Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Control over system performance
  • Job accounting
  • Error detecting aids
  • Coordination between other software and users

facts of computer system:

Top 10 Facts about Computers:

1. The first modern computer was massive.

2. The first modern computer was basically a giant calculator.

3. Computers work through special instructions called algorithms.

4. Phones are computers.

5. A computers memory is called RAM.

6. Over 6,000 computer viruses are released each month.

7. It’s important to take breaks when using a computer to look after your eyes.

8. The first Apple computer was made from free items collected from Apple staff.

9. You can spell the word typewriter using the top line of letters on a computer’s keyboard.

10. When you work on a computer your hands travel 20 kilometers a day.

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